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IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

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A 1-W, 6.78-MHz Wireless Power Transfer System With Up-to-16.1&#x0025; Light-Load Efficiency Improvement and Instant Response Through Single-Cycle-Based <italic>D</italic><sub>TX</sub> Control
Yutang ChenYuxuan LuoJianping Guo
Keywords:Discharges (electric)Voltage controlWireless communicationSwitchesRectifiersImpedanceTopologyCMOS integrated circuitspower controlradiofrequency power transmissionswitching convertorstransient response0.18-μm CMOS technologycharge cycledischarge cycleE2E efficiency improvementend-to-end efficiencyfrequency 6.78 MHzinstant responselight-load conditionslight-load efficiency improvementmaximum power transmissionmeasured load transient responseoutput power rangepeak E2E efficiencypower 10.0 mW to 1000.0 mWpower 10.0 mW to 255.0 mWRXseries-series resonant tanksingle-cycle-based DTX controlsingle-stage regulationtransmission power controlTX controlwireless power transfer system0X/1X structureend-to-end (E2E) efficiency improvementinstant load transient responsesingle-cycle-based DTX controlwireless power transfer (WPT)
Abstracts:This article presents a 6.78-MHz wireless power transfer system with transmission power control. The proposed receiver (RX) with a simplified 0X&#x002F;1X structure can achieve single-stage regulation in series&#x2013;series resonant tank, where the charge and discharge cycle are only dependent on the hysteresis comparator. Asymmetric pulsewidth modulation is adopted in the proposed transmitter (TX), where the duty ratio (<inline-formula><tex-math notation="LaTeX">${D}_{text{TX}}$</tex-math></inline-formula>) is switched based on the charge or discharge cycle of RX. With the proposed single-cycle-based <inline-formula><tex-math notation="LaTeX">${D}_{text{TX}}$</tex-math></inline-formula> control, the <inline-formula><tex-math notation="LaTeX">${D}_{text{TX}}$</tex-math></inline-formula> will be switched to 0.25 in the discharge cycle, while it is 0.5 in the charge cycle for maximum power transmission. Therefore, the end-to-end (E2E) efficiency especially at light-load conditions can be improved, and the recovery time is nearly instant when loading changes suddenly, i.e., neglectable voltage droop can be achieved. The RX is implemented by a printed circuit board and the TX is fabricated in a 0.18-<italic>&#x03BC;</italic>m CMOS technology. In the measurement, an output power range from 10 to 1000 mW is achieved with 60.6&#x0025; peak E2E efficiency. The significant E2E efficiency improvement is observed over 10&#x2013;255 mW and the maximum improvement is 16.1&#x0025;. The measured load transient response verifies that the proposed design has instant response and neglectable voltage droop.
A Vertically Modularized Reconfigurable Wireless Power Transfer System: Architecture, Modeling, and Design
Huan ZhangYaoxia ShaoNing KangHaojun QinChengbin MaMing Liu
Keywords:CouplingsReceiversScalabilityInvertersWireless power transferTransmission line matrix methodsThree-dimensional displayscoilsinductive power transmissionprinted circuitsradiofrequency power transmission70-mm transfer distance80% system dc-dc efficiencycircuit compactnessdesign complexitydifferent power leveleffective transfer distanceexperimental WPT systemfunctional unit modulesinterleaved coil designmegahertz wireless power transferMHz WPT systemmodular design conceptoutput powerpower 116.0 Wpower levelssize 30.0 mm to 90.0 mmtransfer distancesvertically modularized reconfigurable wireless power transfer systemvertically stacked architecturevertically stacked modulesMegahertz (MHz)modular designproximity effectscalabilitywireless power transfer (WPT)
Abstracts:It is known that megahertz (MHz) wireless power transfer (WPT) is particularly beneficial in terms of spatial freedom of power transfer and circuit compactness. Meanwhile, design complexity is a main obstacle to the spread of MHz WPT. In this article, a new modular design concept is proposed to conveniently reconfigure a MHz WPT system for different applications. Multiple predesigned functional unit modules can easily be combined to form a complete new WPT system with a different power level and transfer distance. A vertically stacked architecture is especially chosen to save space in actual applications. Detail analytical derivations are conducted to analyze the modular design, including the influence of different combinations of the unit modules. A new interleaved coil design is developed to reduce the proximity effect and cross coupling among the vertically stacked modules. Finally, the modular design concept is validated by experiments and demonstrates the desired scalability in both power levels and transfer distances. Through 15 combinations of the unit modules, the experimental WPT system can be reconfigured to provide an output power from 4 to 116 W. The effective transfer distance can be also extended from 30 to 90 mm and 80&#x0025; system dc&#x2013;dc efficiency is achieved within a 70-mm transfer distance using 100-mm-diameter printed circuit board coils.
Reconfigurable Rectifier-Based Detuned Series-Series Compensated IPT System for Anti-Misalignment and Efficiency Improvement
Yang ChenShuangjiang HeBin YangShuxin ChenZhengyou HeRuikun Mai
Keywords:CoilsTopologyCouplingsRectifiersSwitchesPower generationCapacitorsbridge circuitsinductive power transmissionload (electric)rectifiersdesign processdetuned SS IPT systemdetuned SS topologyequivalent AC loadexpected coupling rangeextensive coupling rangefull-bridge rectifier modehalf-bridge rectifier modeinductive power transfer systemlow-power IPT applicationspower fluctuationreconfigurable rectifier-based detuned series-series compensated IPT systemsignificant antimisalignmentswitching controlsystem efficiencyAntimisalignmentefficiency improvementinductive power transfer (IPT)reconfigurable rectifier
Abstracts:For an inductive power transfer (IPT) system, mobility is one of the most attractive features, but coupling variations can dramatically affect the system&#x0027;s output. In this article, a reconfigurable rectifier-based detuned series-series (SS) compensated IPT system is proposed to tolerate an extensive coupling range and improve the system efficiency simultaneously. The reconfigurable rectifier, which can operate in a full-bridge rectifier mode or a half-bridge rectifier mode, is used to alter the equivalent ac load from one value to the other so the expected coupling range of the detuned SS topology can be extended. At the same time, the system efficiency is also partly improved because the ac load is changed to get closer to the optimal load of the IPT system. First, a detuned SS IPT system with the reconfigurable rectifier is presented and followed by the analysis of the working modes. Then, a detailed parameter design process and switching control of the reconfigurable rectifier are introduced. Finally, a 400-W prototype was constructed to verify the validity of the proposed method. The experimental results demonstrate that the output power fluctuation of the proposed IPT system is less than 17.5&#x0025; and the lowest efficiency can be improved from 68.6&#x0025; to 87.5&#x0025; with the coupling coefficient varying from 0.1 to 0.4. The proposed method can implement significant antimisalignment and efficiency improvement simultaneously, and it is regarded as a potential solution for low-power IPT applications with high spatial mobility.
Backstepping-Based Direct Power Control for Dual-Cage Rotor Brushless Doubly Fed Induction Generator
Xiaoming YanMing Cheng
Keywords:Voltage controlRotorsAsymptotic stabilityReactive powerMathematical modelsLyapunov methodsDoubly fed induction generatorsasymptotic stabilityasynchronous generatorsbrushless machinesclosed loop systemscontrol nonlinearitiescontrol system synthesisLyapunov methodsmachine controlnonlinear control systemspower controlpower gridsrotorsadvanced vector control methodbackstepping-based direct power control strategyBS-based control schemeBS-based DPC controllerBS-based DPC strategydual-cage rotor brushless doubly fed induction generatordual-closed-loop controlgrid-connected DCR-BDFIGnonlinear controllerPW powerresonant controllerBackstepping control (BSC)direct power control (DPC)dual-cage rotor brushless doubly fed induction generator (DCR-BDFIG)
Abstracts:In this article, we propose a backstepping (BS)-based direct power control (DPC) strategy for the dual-cage rotor brushless doubly fed induction generator (DCR-BDFIG). The relationship between the power winding (PW) output power and the control winding (CW) voltage is derived according to the complete mathematical model of DCR-BDFIG. Based on that, a BS-based DPC controller, also known as a nonlinear controller, is designed with the global asymptotic stability analyzed for the grid-connected DCR-BDFIG. Compared with the dual-closed-loop control in the advanced vector control method, only single-closed-loop is required for the PW power in the proposed BS-based control scheme, and thus it has more simple structure and faster responses. The global stability of the proposed control scheme can be easily guaranteed with a Lyapunov function properly selected. In addition, in order to improve the performance of the proposed BS-based DPC strategy under unbalanced network, the resonant controller is introduced to suppress the oscillating components in the PW power, PW current, and CW current, whose harmonic order is twice of the grid frequency referring to the synchronous reference frame. Finally, the detailed experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
A Novel Low Device Count Four-Port Converter Based Solar-Fed Off-Grid System for Catering Household Hybrid AC/DC Loads
Amal C SunnyDipankar Debnath
Keywords:BatteriesTopologyVoltageLow voltageCapacitorsVoltage controlInductorsDC-AC power convertorsDC-DC power convertorsdomestic appliancesmaximum power point trackersphotovoltaic power systemspower convertorspower generation controlpower gridssolar powerswitching convertorsvoltage controlvoltage regulatorsac load voltage regulationbattery backupbattery overchargebudding topologies tendercatering household appliancescontinuous current portsconventional dc-ac converterdc loaddeep-discharge protectiondesirable featuresexisting low-cost ac loadshigh-voltage boostinghigher energy efficient dc loadshybrid systemlow semiconductor countlow-frequency transformerlow-voltage levelsmaximum power point trackingnovel low device count four-port converterpower 400.0 Wpower converter stagessolar powerFour-port converterhybrid ac/dc systemlow-voltage portsoff-grid schemesolar power
Abstracts:Hybrid ac/dc off-grid topologies offer the combined advantage of higher energy efficient dc loads, and existing low-cost ac loads. Such budding topologies tender a promising solution for rural electrification when supplied from solar power along with battery backup. The desirable features of such a scheme for catering household appliances are: low semiconductor count, continuous current ports for PV, battery and dc load, low-voltage levels for PV and battery, dc and ac load voltage regulation, maximum power point tracking, battery overcharge and deep-discharge protection, high-voltage boosting sans low-frequency transformer, and reduced power converter stages. The schemes reported in the literature lack one or more of these features. To address this concern, a hybrid ac/dc scheme is proffered. The first stage is formed by a novel three-switch four-port converter, which facilitates most of the aforesaid features required in a hybrid system. The remaining features are obtained using a conventional dc&#x2013;ac converter, which forms the second stage of the proposed solution. The overall solution is substantiated through comprehensive analysis and experimental demonstrations using a 400 W experimental prototype.
Selective Virtual Synthetic Vector Embedding for Full-Range Current Harmonic Suppression of the DC Collector
Feng AnBiao ZhaoBin CuiYushuo ChenLu QuZhanqing YuRong Zeng
Keywords:Harmonic analysisPower harmonic filtersSwitchesPhase modulationInductorsBatteriesHarmonics suppressionactive filterselectric current controlharmonics suppressionpassive filterspower convertorspower gridspower harmonic filterspower system harmonicsvoltage controldc collector systemdc voltagedistributed energy accesseffective harmonic suppressionembedded virtual voltage vectorexcellent harmonic characteristicfull-range current harmonic suppressionmedium-voltage power distribution gridsphotovoltaic energyrene wable energyselective virtual synthetic vector embeddingsubmoduleswitching voltage vectorstraditional carrier phase-shifting modulationvariable-angle carrier phase-shift modulationDC collectordynamic responsefull-range harmonic suppressionselective virtual synthetic vectorspace geometry
Abstracts:With the rapid development of rene wable energy (e.g., wind and photovoltaic energy) and energy storage, the dc collector has become an effective conversion link of distributed energy access to medium-voltage power distribution grids. However, considering the inconsistency of dc voltage and the duty cycle of each submodule, the traditional carrier phase-shifting modulation is difficult to achieve the excellent harmonic characteristic in the dc collector, thereby introducing difficulties in the design of passive filters. To solve this problem, this article proposes a selective virtual synthetic vector embedding algorithm to realize full-range current harmonic suppression in the dc collector system. In this scheme, the switching voltage vectors outputted by each submodule are sorted, and the voltage vectors are selectively extracted and synthesized to calculate the embedded virtual voltage vector. Afterward, the voltage vector of each submodule is rotated and calculated online from the perspective of space geometry, and the optimal carrier phase combination in variable-angle carrier phase-shift modulation is obtained. Finally, the experimental results show that the proposed control algorithm can not only be used in the dc collector with any number of modules but also achieve fast and effective harmonic suppression in the whole operating range.
Condition Monitoring Method for Heatsink of Traction Inverter Using ANN and OWD
Yaoyi YuXiong DuJunjie ZhouHongyu Ren
Keywords:Heating systemsInvertersCoolingMaintenance engineeringMonitoringRailsTemperature measurementcondition monitoringheat sinksinvertorsneural netspower engineering computingrailwaysANNartificial neural networkcondition monitoring methodheatsinkone way distance algorithmonline monitoringoperation conditionsOWDreference curvestemperature dynamic curvestraction inverterurban rail trainworking conditionsArtificial neural network (ANN)condition monitoringheatsinkone-way distance (OWD)traction inverter
Abstracts:This article proposes a novel condition monitoring method for heatsink of traction inverter of urban rail train by detecting the change of temperature dynamic curves. Artificial neural network is used to predict the reference curves of healthy state under various working conditions, and the differences between temperature dynamic curves are extracted by one-way distance algorithm. This method is suitable for the condition monitoring of heatsink of urban rail train, because first it meets the diversity of operation conditions and nonthermal equilibrium state of traction inverter. Moreover, its implementation does not cause intrusion to the original system, and can realize online monitoring. Finally, the effectiveness is experimentally verified.
Floating-Reference On-State Voltage Measurement Strategy for Condition Monitoring Application
Moein GhadrdanSaeed PeyghamiHossein MokhtariFrede Blaabjerg
Keywords:Voltage measurementSemiconductor device measurementInsulated gate bipolar transistorsSemiconductor diodesMonitoringCurrent measurementAgingcondition monitoringinvertorspower semiconductor devicesvoltage measurementcondition monitoring applicationhand-held portable monitoring devicemonitoring systemon-state voltage measurement strategyoptimal operating conditionspower semiconductorssimple converter-level structurethree-phase conventional inverterCondition monitoringconverter-leveldegra- dation indicatorinsulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT)on-state voltagepower semiconductor
Abstracts:Due to its acceptable sensitivity to aging, <sc>on</sc>-state voltage is one of the best degradation indicators ever devised to monitor the condition of power semiconductors. The steep changes in the voltage of the semiconductors during switching have prompted the development of various circuits to extract the <sc>on</sc>-state voltage. This article proposes a simple converter-level structure for measuring the <sc>on</sc>-state voltage of every power semiconductor in a three-phase conventional inverter. As a result of its features, the proposed circuit enables the development of a hand-held portable monitoring device that can be used independently of the converter. Detailed information is given on how to design and select the components of the proposed monitoring system, along with its optimal operating conditions. In addition to the simulation results, a proof-of-concept prototype has been developed to evaluate the measurement accuracy and dynamic performance of the proposed circuit for the application of a three-phase inverter. The results confirm the overall effectiveness of the proposed topology and its comparable performance.
Investigation of Deformation Fluctuation of IGBT Chips Under Switching Conditions Using the Dynamic Field Reconstruction Method
Jiahao WangLibing BaiCong ChenJie ZhangQuan ZhouLulu TianJun LuoWei HuangYuhua Cheng
Keywords:StrainInsulated gate bipolar transistorsSwitchesDeformable modelsFluctuationsReliabilityAnalytical modelsdeformationdisplacement measurementinsulated gate bipolar transistorspower electronicssemiconductor device reliabilitybonding wiresdeformation characteristicsdeformation fluctuationdeformation fluctuation characteristicsdynamic deformation field characterizationdynamic deformation field distributiondynamic field reconstruction methodelectro-thermal-mechanical couplingIGBT chipinsulated gate bipolar transistor chipspower electronic modulesrelatively larger deformationreliability analysisscanning laser displacement measurementswitching conditionsDeformation characterizationdynamic field reconstructioninsulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) chipsswitching conditions
Abstracts:Insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) chips are crucial core components in power electronic modules. It is of great significance to investigate the deformation characteristics of IGBT chips induced by the electro-thermal-mechanical coupling. In this article, a field reconstruction technique based on scanning laser displacement measurement is developed to accurately capture the dynamic deformation field distribution on the surface of IGBT chips. Based on this method, a comprehensive investigation of the impacts of switching conditions on the deformation fluctuation characteristics of IGBT chips is implemented. The results indicate the middle region of the IGBT chip suffers from a relatively larger deformation compared to the edge area. In particular, the largest deformation fluctuation occurs near the heel of bonding wires. In addition, it is also observed that the deformation fluctuation is negatively correlated with the switching frequency, meanwhile positively related to load amplitude, and shows a trend of increasing first, and then, decreasing with duty cycle. This work provides an intuitive and effective method for the dynamic deformation field characterization of IGBT chips. Furthermore, the outcomes obtained in this article can also provide confident evidence and important data to facilitate more precise reliability analysis and evaluation for power electronic modules.
Inertia and Grid Impedance Emulation of Power Grid for Stability Test of Grid-Forming Converter
Jiashi WangKe Ma
Keywords:ImpedanceEmulationPower system stabilityPower gridsBehavioral sciencesResonant frequencyFrequency controlfrequency convertorslow-pass filterspower generation controlpower gridsswitching convertorssynchronous generatorsconverter-based power gridgrid behaviorsgrid emulation methodgrid impedance emulationgrid-forming converter stability testhigh-switching-frequency converterlow pass filterlow-frequency band grid impedancelow-switching-frequency convertermiddle-frequency impedancepower inertiavirtual impedance controlvirtual inertiavirtual synchronous generator controlVSG controlwider frequency rangesGrid emulatorgrid-forming converterinertiastability testvirtual impedancevirtual synchronous generator (VSG)
Abstracts:The virtual synchronous generator (VSG) control is a promising solution for the grid-forming converters to enhance the inertia of the converter-based power grid. The virtual inertia and output impedance of the VSG are the important behaviors to be focused. However, the virtual inertia of grid-forming converters may cause active power oscillation due to the interaction with the power inertia of grid through the low-frequency band grid impedance. Besides, the resonance can be also triggered by the interaction between middle-frequency impedance of power grid and output impedance of converter. In order to test the stability of grid-forming converter, accurate emulation of grid behaviors from more aspects, including inertia and impedance under wider frequency ranges, is becoming critical. This article proposes a grid emulation method to mimic the inertia and impedance characteristics of power grid, targeting for the stability test of grid-forming converter under multifrequency bands. A high-switching-frequency converter and a low-switching-frequency converter are adopted in the proposed emulator structure to achieve both high capability in respect to control bandwidth and power level. Moreover, the virtual impedance control is integrated with the VSG control to emulate the line impedance and inertia within relatively wider frequency ranges. The realization of virtual impedance is achieved without derivation terms nor low pass filter. Finally, the performance of the proposed emulator is verified by various simulations and experimental measurements.
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